This page is the part of Dr. Jae-Nam Lee's Homepage. Here, you can find basic IT/IS outsourcing-related references. If you have others references, please let me know the list of your outsourcing references. I will add them into the list here.  Also, if you need any help and question about IT/IS outsourcing, please contact me at any time. Thank you.



Strategic Management Perspective

¡¡(i.e., Resource-based; Resource-dependency; Core competencies; Co-ordination Theories)


1.      Aldrich, H., ¡°Resource Dependence and Interorganizational Relations: Relations Between Local Employment Service Office and Social Services Sector Organizations,¡± Administration and Society, Vol.7, No.4, 1976, pp.419~455

2.      Alrich, H. and Pfeffer, J., Environments of Organizations,¡± Annual Review of Sociology, Vol.2, 1976, pp.79-105

3.      Barney, J., ¡°Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage,¡± Journal of Management, Vol.17, No.1, 1991, pp.99~120

4.      Barney, J., ¡°Strategic Factor Markets: Expectation, Luck, and Business Strategy,¡± Management Science, Vol.32, No.10, 1986, pp.1231~1241

5.      Cheon, M. J., Grover V., and Teng, J. T. C., ¡°Theoretical Perspectives on the Outsourcing of Information Systems,¡± Journal of Information Technology, Vol.10, No.4, 1995, pp.209~220

6.      Conner, K. R., ¡°A Historical Comparison of Resource-Based Theory and Five Schools of Thought Within Industrial Organization Economics: Do We Have A New Theory of The Firm?,¡± Journal of Management, Vol.17, No.1, 1991, pp.121~154

7.      Daft, R. L., Organization Theory and Design, (4th ed.), West Publishing Company, New York, 1992

8.      Emery, F. E. and Trist, E. L., ¡°The Causal Texture of Organizational Environment,¡± Human Relations, Vol.18, 1965, pp.21-33

9.      Feeny, D. and Willcockes, L., "Core IS Capabilities for Exploiting Information Technology," Sloan Management Review, Spring 1998, pp.9-21

10. Grant, R. M., ¡°The Resource-Based Theory of Competitive Advantage: Implications for Strategy Formulation,¡± California Management Review, Vol.33, No.3, 1991, pp.114~135

11. Hitt, M. and Ireland, D., ¡°Toward an empirical Priorization of Contingency Variables for Business Strategy,¡± Journal of Management Studies, Vol.23, 1986, pp.401-416

12. Hochstrasser, B. and Griffiths, C., Controlling IT Investment. Chapman and Hall, London, 1991

13. King, W. R. ¡°Developing a Sourcing Strategy for IS: A Behavioral Decision Process and Framework,¡± IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol.48, No.1, 2001, pp.15-24

14. Kotter, J. P., ¡°Managing External Dependence,¡± Academy of Management Review, Vol.4, No.1, 1979, pp.87~92

15. Leonard-Barton, D., ¡°Core Capabilities and Core Rigidities: A Paradox in Managing New Product Development,¡± Strategic Management Journal, Vol.13, 1992, pp.111-125

16. Mintzberg, H., The Structuring of Organizations. Prentice-Hall, England Cliffs, New Jersey, 1979

17. Penrose, E. T., Theory of the Growth of the Firm, Oxford, Blackwell, 1959

18. Pfeffer, J. and Nowak, P., ¡°Joint Ventures and Interorganizational Interdependence,¡± Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.21, 1976, pp.398~418

19. Pfeffer, J. and Salancik, G. R., The External Control of Organization, Pittman, Boston, 1978

20. Porter, M. E., Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors. The Free Press, New York, 1980

21. Porter, M. W. and Millar, V. E., ¡°How Information Gives You Competitive Advantage,¡± Harvard Business Review, Vol.63, No.4, 1985, pp.59-81

22. Pralahad, C. K. and Hamel, G., ¡°The Core Competences of the Corporation,¡± Harvard Business Review, Vol.68, No.3, 1990, pp.79-91

23. Provan, K. G., Beyer, J. M. and Kruytbosch, C., ¡°Environmental Linkages and Power In Resource-Dependence Relations Between Organizations,¡± Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 25, 1980, pp.200~225

24. Quinn, J. B. and Hilmer, F. G., ¡°Strategic Outsourcing,¡± Sloan Management Review, Vol.35, No.4, pp.43-55

25. Quinn, J. B., Intelligent Enterprise. Free Press, New York, 1992

26. Rubin, P. H., ¡°The Expansion of Firms,¡± Journal of Political Economy, Vol.81, No.4, 1973, pp.936~949

27. Rumelt, R., Strategy, Structure, and Economic Performance. Harvard Business Press, Cambridge, 1974

28. Stevensen, H. H., ¡°Defining Corporate Strengths and Weaknesses,¡± Sloan Management Review, Vol.17, 1976, pp.51-68

29. Thompson, A. A. and Strickland, A. J., Strategy Formulation and Implementation, Business Publications, Dallas, 1983

30. Thompson, J. D., Organization in Action, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1967

31. Ulrich, D. and Barney, J. B., ¡°Perspectives in Organizations: Resource Dependency, Efficiency, and Population,¡± Academy of Management Review, Vol.9, 1984, pp.471-481

32. Wernerfelt, B., ¡°A Resource-Based View of The Firm,¡± Strategic Management Review, Vol.5, No.2, 1984, pp.171~180

33. Williams, J. R., ¡°How Sustainable Is Your Competitive Advantage?,¡± California Management Review, Vol.34, No.3, 1992, pp.29~51

34. Yuchtman, E. and Seashore, S. E., ¡°A System Resource and Approach to Organizational Effectiveness,¡± American Sociological Review, Vol.32, 1967, pp.891-903

35. Zeithaml, C. P. and Zeithaml, V. A., ¡°Environmental Management: Revising the Marketing Perspective,¡± Journal of Marketing, Vol.48, 1984, pp.46-53



Economic Perspective

¡¡(i.e., Transaction cost; Agency cost; Economic efficiency Theories)


1.      Ang, Soon, and Detmar, S., "Costs, Transaction Specific Investments and Vendor Dominance of the Marketplace: The Economics of IS Outsourcing," in Information Systems Outsourcing: Enduring Themes, Emergent Patterns and Future Directions, R. Hirschheim, A. Heinzl, and J.Dibbern (eds.), Springer, Verlag: Berlin, 2002, pp.47-76.

2.      Aubert, B. A., Rivard, S., and Patry, M., ¡°A Transaction Cost Approach to Outsourcing Behavior: Some Empirical Evidence,¡± Information & Management, Vol.30, 1996, pp.51~64

3.      Bahli, B. and Rivard, S., An Assessment of Information Technology Outsourcing Risk," Proceeding of the twenty-second International Conference on Information Systems, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, December 2001, pp.575-580

4.      Barthelemy, J., "The Hidden Costs of IT Outsourcing," Sloan Management Review, Spring 2001, pp.60-69

5.      Borchers, Andrew S., Information Technology Outsourcing: A Test of Organizational Economic, Strategic and Political Models, Doctor dissertation in Nova Southeastern University, 1996

6.      Cheon, M. J., Grover V., and Teng, J. T. C., ¡°Theoretical Perspectives on the Outsourcing of Information Systems,¡± Journal of Information Technology, Vol.10, No.4, 1995, pp.209~220

7.      Clemons, E. K. and Row, M. C., ¡°Information Technology and Economic Reorganization¡± In J. DeGross, J. Henderson, & B. Konsynski(Eds.), Proceeding of the Tenth International Conference on Information Systems, Boston, Massachusetts, December 1989, pp.341~351

8.      Coase, R. H., ¡°The Nature of the Firm,¡± Economica, Vol.4, 1937, pp.386-405

9.      Dwyer, F. R. and Oh, S., ¡°A Transactions Cost Perspective on Vertical Contractual Structure and Interchannel Competitive Strategies,¡± Journal of Marketing, Vol.52, April 1988, pp.21~34

10. Eisenhardt, K. M., ¡°Agency- and Institutional-Theory Explanations: The Case of Retail Sales Compensation,¡± Academy of Management Journal, Vol.31, 1988, pp.488-511

11. Eisenhardt, K. M., ¡°Agency Theory: An Assessment and Review,¡± Academy of Management Review, Vol.14, No.1, 1989, pp.57~74

12. Elam, J. J., Establishing Cooperative External Relationships, in Transforming the IS Organizations, Elam, J., Ginzberg, M., Keen, P. and Zmud, R. (eds), ICIT Press, Washington, DC, 1988, pp.83-98

13. Holmstrom, B. R. and Tirole, J., The Theory of the Firm. In Handbook of Industrial Organization, Vol.1, Schmalensee, R. and Willig, R. (eds.), 1989

14. Jensen, M. C. and Meckling, W. H., ¡°Theory of The Firm: Managerial Behavior, Agency Costs and Ownership Structure,¡± Journal of Financial Economics, Vol.3, No.4, 1976, pp.305~360

15. Karake, Z. A., Information Technology and Management Control: An Agency Theory Perspective. Praeger, Westport, CT, 1992

16. Lacity, M. C. and Hirschhein, R, Information Systems Outsourcing: Myths, Metaphors and Realities, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1993

17. Lowry, S., ¡°Bargain and Contract Theory in Law and Economics,¡± Journal of Economic Issues, Vol.1, No.12, 1976

18. Malon, T., Yates, J. and Benjamin, R., ¡°Electronic Markets and Electronic Hierarchies,¡± Communications of the ACM, Vol.30, No.6, June 1987, pp.484-497

19. Masten, S. E., ¡°The Organization of Production: Evidence From the Aerospace Industry,¡± Journal of Law and Economics, Vol.27, October 1984, pp.403~417

20. Mitnick, B., ¡°The Theory of Agency: The Policing Paradox and Regulatory Behavior,¡± Public Choice, Vol.24, 1975, pp.27-42

21. Perry, M. P., Vertical Integration, In Handbook of Industrial Organizations, Vol.1, Schmalensee, R. and Willig, R. (eds.)., North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1989, pp.183-255

22. Ross, S., ¡°Economic Theory of Agency: The Principal Problem,¡± American Economic Review, Vol.63, No.2, 1973, pp.134~139

23. Simson, H., Administrative Behavior. The Free Press, New York, 1976

24. Walker, G. and Weber, D., ¡°A Transaction Cost Approach to Make-or-Buy Decisions,¡± Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.29, 1984, pp.373~391

25. Walsh, K., Public Services and Market Mechanisms: Competition, Contracting and the New Public Management, Macmillian, Basingstoke, 1995

26. Wang, T.G. Eric, "Transaction Attributes and Software Outsourcing Success: An Empirical Investigation of Transaction Cost Theory," Information Systems Journal, Vol.12, 2002, pp.153-181

27. Williamson, O. E., ¡°The Economics of Organization: The Transaction Cost Approach,¡± American Journal of Sociology, Vol.87, No.3, 1981, pp.548~577

28. Williamson, O. E., ¡°Transaction Cost Economics: The Governance of Contractual Relations,¡± Journal of Law and Economics, Vol.22, October 1979, pp.233~261

29. Williamson, O. E., Markets and Hierarchies: Analysis and Antitrust Implications, A Study in the Economics of Internal Organization, The Free Press, New York, 1975

30. Williamson, O. E., The Economic Institutions of Capitalism. Free Press, New York, 1985



Social Perspective

¡¡(i.e., Power-political; Social contract; Social exchange theories)


1.      Allen, R., Madison, D., Porter, L., Renwick, P. and Mayes, B., ¡°Organizational Politics: Tactics and Characteristic of Its Actors,¡± California Management Review, Vol.22, No.1, 1979, pp.77-83

2.      Allison, G., Essence of Decision. Little, Brown and Company, Boston, 1971

3.      Bacharach, S. B. and Lawler, E. J., Power and Politics in Organizations: The Social Psychology of Conflict, Coalitions, and Bargaining, Jossey-Bass Inc. Publisher, 1981

4.      Bagozzi, R. P., ¡°Marketing as Exchange,¡± Journal of Marketing, Vol.39, October 1975, pp.32~39

5.      Barnett, R. E., ¡°Conflicting Visions: A Critique of Ian Macneil¡¯s Relational Theory of Contract,¡± Virginia Law Review, Vol.78, No.5, 1992, pp.1175-1206

6.      Blau, P. M., Exchange and Power in Social Life, New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1964

7.      Burgess, R. L. and Huston, T. L., Social Exchange in Developing Relationships: An Overview, in R. Burgess and T. Huston(Eds.), Social Exchange in Developing elationship, New York, Academy Press, 1983, pp.3~28

8.      Cook, K. S., ¡°Exchange and Power in Networks of Interorganziational Relations,¡± The Sociological Quarterly, Vol.18, Winter 1977, pp.62-82

9.      Cyert, R. and March, J., A Behavioral Theory of the Firm. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Chiffs, New Jersey, 1963

10. Dwyer, F. R., Schurr P. H., and Oh, S., ¡°Developing Buyer-Seller Relationships,¡± Journal of Marketing, Vol.51, April 1987, pp.11~27

11. Emerson, R. M., ¡°Power Dependence Relationship,¡± American Sociological Review, Vol.27, February 1962, pp.31~41

12. Emerson, R. M., Exchange Theory Part I and II. In Berger, J., Zethlditch, M., Anderson, B. (eds.). Sociological Theories in Progress, 2, Houghton-Mifflin, Boston, 1972, pp.38-87

13. Frazier, G. L., ¡°On the Measurement of Interfirm Power in Channels of Distribution,¡± Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 20, May 1983, pp.158~166

14. Fukuyama, F., Trust: The Social Virtues and The Creation of Prosperity, The Free Press, New York, 1995

15. Harrigan, K. R., ¡°Strategic Alliance and Partner Asymmetries,¡± Management International Review, Vol.28, 1988, pp.53~72

16. Hart, O. D., Firms Contracts and Financial Structures. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1961

17. Hickson, D., Hinings, C., Lee, C., Schneck, R. and Pennings, J., ¡°A Strategic Contingencies¡¯ Theory of Interorganizational Power,¡± Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.16, No.2, June 1971, pp.216-229

18. Hinings, C., Hickson, D., Pennings, J. and Schneck, R., ¡°Structural Conditions of Intraorganziational Power,¡± Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.19, No.1, March 1974, pp.22-44

19. Homan, G. C., Social Behavior: Its Elementary Forms. Harcourt Jovanovich, New York, 1961

20. Homans, G. C., ¡°Social Behavior as Exchange,¡± American Journal of Sociology, Vol.63, May 1958, pp.597~606

21. Houston, F. S. and Gassenheimer, J. B., ¡°Marketing and Exchange,¡± Journal of Marketing, Vol.51, October 1987, pp.3~18

22. Kern, T., "The Gestalt of an Information Technology Outsourcing Relationship: An Exploratory Analysis," Proceeding of the eighteenth International Conference on Information Systems, 1997, pp.37-58

23. Lacity, M. C. and Hirschhein, R, Information Systems Outsourcing: Myths, Metaphors and Realities, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1993

24. Macneil, I. R., ¡°Contract: Adjustment of Long-term Economic Relations Under Classical, Neoclassical, and Relational Contract Law,¡± Northwestern University Law Review, Vol.72, 1978, pp.854-902

25. Macneil, I. R., ¡°The Many Futures of Contracts,¡± Southern California Law Review, Vol.47, 1974, pp.691-816

26. Macneil, I. R., The New Social Contract: An Inquiry into Modern Contractual Relations. Yale University Press, New Haven, 1980

27. Marx, K., Capital: A Critique of Political Economy. Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1976

28. Marx, K., Grundrisse: Foundations of the Critique of Political Economy. Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1973

29. Mechanic, D., ¡°Sources of Power in Lower Participants in Organizations,¡± Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.7, NO.3, December 1962, pp.349-364

30. Pettigrew, A., The Political of Organizational Decision-Making. Tavistock Publications, London, 1973

31. Pfeffer, J. and Salancik, G. R., The External Control of Organization, Pittman, Boston, 1978

32. Pfeffer, J., Power in Organizations, Pitman Publishing, Marshfield, Massachusetts, 1981

33. Roger-Gillmore, M., Implications of General versus Restricted Exchange. In Cook, K.S. (ed.). Social Exchange Theory. Sage Publication, Newbury Park, 1987, pp.170-189

34. Rousseau, D. M., Psychological Contracts in Organizations: Understanding Written and Unwritten Agreements. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, USA, 1995

35. Salanick, G. and Pfeffer, J., ¡°Uncertainty Secrecy, and the Choice of Similar Others,¡± Social Psychology Quarterly, Vol.41, No.3, September 1978, pp.246-255

36. Sethuraman, R., Anderson, J. C., and Narus, J. A., ¡°Partnership Advantage and Its Determinants in Distributor and Manufacturer Working Relationships,¡± Journal of Business Research, Vol.17, 1988, pp.327~347

37. Thibaut, J. W. and Kelley, H. J., The Social Psychology of Groups, Wiley, New York, 1959

38. Tushman, M., ¡°A Political Approach to Organizations: A Review and Rationale,¡± Academy of Management Review, Vol.2, No.2, 1977, pp.206~216

39. Walden, E. A., "On The Structure And Function Of Outsourcing Contracts: An Integrative Analysis Of The Economics Behind Vendor-Client Relationship," Working Paper, University of Minnesota, 2002,

40. Weber, M., The Methodology of the Social Science, The Free Press, Glencoe, Illinois, 1949

41. Weber, M., The Theory of Social and Economic Organization, The Free Press, Glencoe, Illinois, 1947

42. Welsh, M. and Slusher, E., ¡°Organizational Design as Context for Political Activity,¡± Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.31, No.3, September 1986, pp.389-402

43. White, P. E. and Levine, S., ¡°Exchange as a Conceptual Framework for the Study of Interorganziational Relationships,¡± Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.5, No.4, 1961, pp.583-601



[ Final update date: May 24, 2002 ]